Samstag 31. Juli 2010 von htm
www.alkoholpolitik.ch Newsletter July 2010 (issued 07/31/10)
Dear English speaking reader, dear friends,
I am glad to send you examples of the new entries on my website. See the website for more entries.
After modernising the website we had to alter the look of this newsletter too. We have split the articles in two separate language newsletters, German and English. With a mouseclick on the titles you come to the original article where you find also the links to the source. We hope to meet your requirements. It is now much shorter and better to read. Anyhow we are willing to improve it when you give us a feedback with proposals. Please check, if you have included our address in your list of accepted addresses that your SPAM-filter doesn’t exclude our newsletter.
|2867 articles in 109 categories and with 7502 main expressions (tags) since 1/1/2009.|
If you shouldn’t like to receive this newsletter anymore or wish to order a copy for someone else, please just send a short e-mail to: htmeyer(at)alkoholpolitik.ch
In order to make the e-mail lighter we only send the Word.doc- version.
Yours Hermann T. Meyer
Introduction on e-mail Newsletter
“The greatest and most costly failure of the medical profession and public health community is their failure to explain to the American people that addiction to alcohol and other drugs is a disease. is inconsistent with their Hippocratic oath to “prescribe regimen for the good of my patients…and never to do harm to anyone. … The harm due to this long term failure of the medical profession and public health community is measured in untold lives lost and ruined and the incalculable human misery of families, friends and colleagues of alcoholics and drug addicts”.
This statement by the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University could lead to a similar statement about the handling of the alcohol problem by the elected politicians who promised once by oath to act for the best of their people. Some of them receive thousands of Dollars from the alcohol industry, that’s normally called corruption. During July there were several news items about attempts of legislators in order to reduce the preventive effects of existing laws or fighting against new laws which could limit the burden of alcohol problems. The harm due to this failure is the same as cited above regarding the medical profession. Are they not guilty because they cannot see their responsibility?
The month with the World Championship in South Africa is over. But there are new big drinking occasions. One of them, the Love Parade in Duisburg, Germany, ended with 21 deaths and more than 500 injured people. Many of the hospitalized persons were intoxicated. If alcohol led to the deadly panic situation? Most probably this will not be examined. Also the question if alcohol interest was a main pushing factor to permit such an unbelievably unsecure project. The show must go on.
EU-Commission: Study on the minimum rates and structures of alcohol excise duties – 19. Juli 2010
In 2004, the Commission produced a report which recommended that the minimum rates of duty laid down in 1992 should be revalorised to take account of the inflation that has occurred since then (COM(2004) 223 final). The present report has been prepared by the London School of Economics and it analyses whether the current tax system is causing distortions of the internal market and whether adaptations would be appropriate. (Source: Eurocare Newsletter June-July 2010)
Price Controls Cut Binge Drinking in Canadian Province – 8. Juli 2010
The Canadian province of Saskatchewan’s minimum-pricing policy on high-alcohol beverages has resulted in a decline in public intoxication as well as lower sales of potent products, the Saskatoon Star-Phoenix reported July 6.
The province is among a handful of governments worldwide to set minimum prices based on alcohol content. The policy has caused the prices of 36 targeted products to rise by up to 40 percent.
Saskatchewan Liquor and Gaming Authority officials said that public drunkenness and calls to police have declined in the areas where high-alcohol products are consumed most. (Source: Join Together, 7/7/10)
“Charge for Harm” Alcohol Mitigation Fee Program Introduced – 2. Juli 2010
… by San Francisco Supervisor Avalos. San Francisco has broken new ground again by introducing a broad, local alcohol mitigation fee program, to charge alcohol wholesalers for related city and county services. On Thursday the Comptroller’s office is expected to release a “nexus” study showing the relationship of alcohol sales to costs for community behavioral health services, firefighter emergency medical transport and Sheriff inebriate holding costs. … “It’s time for Big Alcohol, including wholesalers, to pay its fair share. A local alcohol charge for harm fee is long overdue.” (Source: Marin Institute, 6/30/10) Press Release – – – Local Fee Fact Sheet
Show Your Support for the SF Charge for Harm Fee – 29. Juli 2010
San Francisco Day of Action, SF City Hall Rally. Join labor, youth, firefighters, treatment, prevention, and health-care providers on Wednesday, August 4 at 10:00 a.m. on the Polk Street steps of San Francisco City Hall for a press conference and rally in support of the City’s proposed Charge for Harm ordinance. This local precedent-setting measure seeks to recover an estimated $17.7 million in annual alcohol-related costs from a fee that would be assessed to alcohol wholesalers and others. (Source: Marin Institute, 7/29/10)
NHS Choices: Five Drinking Myths – 29. Juli 2010
There are so many stories around alcohol and drinking that it’s hard to know what to believe. Knowing the facts about how drinking affects your body is the best way to make sure you drink safely. Below are some common myths around drinking . Read on to find out the real facts about alcohol. … (Source: Medical News Today, 7/28/10) with our Online Comment
Virginia Governor Leads Drive for Privatization of Liquor Distribution – 27. Juli 2010
Virginia Gov. Robert McDonnell has spent months quietly trying to build consensus around a plan to shutter state liquor stores established after Prohibition and return the distribution of alcohol to private wholesalers and retailers. The plan would likely mean far more places where residents could buy liquor in a state where beer and wine can already be purchased in supermarkets and various other retail outlets. …(Source: Join Together, 7/26/10)
Kansas Volume Pricing Law on Alcohol Delayed – 27. Juli 2010
Kansas Gov. Mark Parkinson ordered the state’s alcohol regulation agency to delay enforcing a decades old — but largely ignored — law that requires bars to price drinks according to alcohol content. The law would effectively end all specials that make drinks cheaper by volume — mandating that a 32-ounce beer cost twice as much as a 16-ounce beer, for example. (Source: Join Together, 7/23/10)
Alcohol Tax Repeal Will Be First Question on Mass. Ballot – 27. Juli 2010
The first question on the November’s ballot will be an up or down vote on repeal of the state’s alcohol sales tax, which was first instated in 2009. The third question on the ballot gives voters the option of reducing state sales tax from 6.25 percent to 3 percent. The alcohol tax helps pay for addiction programs, but detractors claim it makes the state less competitive with nearby, tax-free New Hampshire. (Source: Join Together, 7/21/10)
USA: Health Advocacy Group Pushes Liquor Tax In Md. – 27. Juli 2010
“A health advocacy group is hoping to use this year’s election to pressure General Assembly members into passing a ‘dime a drink’ liquor tax increase to help pay for health care for the disabled and poor. Maryland Citizens’ Health Initiative sent out letters Monday to all candidates running for the state Senate or House of Delegates, urging them to sign a pledge supporting the tax….” (Source: Medical News Today, 7/21/10)
Colleges Not Meeting Guidelines To Limit Alcohol Access – 27. Juli 2010
While many have implicated heavy student drinking in recent disturbances even tragedies on college campuses, few schools and communities have united successfully in curbing alcohol access, a new study suggests. … (Source: Medical News Today, 7/21/10)
USA: At-Home Alcohol Consumption Rises – 21. Juli 2010
Sales of alcohol for consumption at home has grown 21 percent since 2004, according to market research firm Mintel, Food Product Design reported July 15.
Those who imbibe at home are drinking nearly double what they would at restaurants and bars, the report said. Beer is still the most popular alcoholic beverage consumed overall, but wine was the most popular purchase for off-premise consumption. (Source: Join Together, 7/20/10)
First Dutch conference on ALCOHOL and HEALTH – 21. Juli 2010
This conference will take place on Thursday the 23rd of September 2010 in Amsterdam (the Netherlands) and provides an overview of the state-of-the-art scientific knowledge about the effects of alcohol on physical health. Leading international scientists will elaborate on their findings regarding the effects of alcohol on heart, brains and liver and the relation of alcohol and cancer. Furthermore, the public message with respect to alcohol and health will be discussed.
Venue: Amsterdam: Pakhuis de Zwijger (www.dezwijger.nl), Time 9:00 am – 05:30 pm, Subscribe via www.stap.nl, Costs € 200,–
The Greatest Failure of the Medical and Public Health Professions – 20. Juli 2010
The greatest and most costly failure of the medical profession and public health community is their failure to explain to the American people that addiction to alcohol and other drugs is a disease.
Against the scientific knowledge we now have, physicians’ refusal to give alcohol- and other drug-addicted patients the same medical care and attention they provide individuals with other chronic illnesses like hypertension and diabetes is inconsistent with their Hippocratic oath to “prescribe regimen for the good of my patients…and never to do harm to anyone.” The harm due to this long term failure of the medical profession and public health community is measured in untold lives lost and ruined and the incalculable human misery of families, friends and colleagues of alcoholics and drug addicts. (Source: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 7/19/10)
Eurocare-Newsletter June-July 2010 – 19. Juli 2010
Newsletter online with important information from Europe and the European Union.
Inquiry Recommendations Miss The Mark On Youth Violence, Australia – 18. Juli 2010
The Australian Drug Foundation is astonished to see not one mention of alcohol and other drugs in all thirteen recommendations from the House of Representatives inquiry into the impact of violence on young Australians. The report, Avoid the Harm – Stay Calm, is due to be released today. … (Source: Medical News Today, 7/16/10) with our online-comment: In Switzerland it took years, till the political authorities accepted officially that alcohol is one of the main reasons of violence. Even public health professionals were afraid to speak about it. Now the wind has changed. Fortunately.
Alcohol – Friend or Enemy – 18. Juli 2010
Since time immemorial alcohol has played a prominent role in countless societies. Nearly 2.000 years ago Jesus supposedly turned water into wine. Over the years wine has often been used to seal contracts, treaties and many forms of agreements. In the Middle Ages monks’ allowance of beer was measured in gallons (1 Br gallon = 4.5 liters).
Charles Dickens (died in 1870) often wrote about the poverty of the under privileged people of London, who drank gin to counteract their hunger, when gin cost a mere two pence a bottle. … (Source: Google alcohol news, 7/17/10) blog.inlingua-duesseldorf.de, 7/16/10 with our online comment: Re Glossary: Temperance societies are not against the consumption of alcohol. That’s what the alcohol industry wants to be believed by the public. Temperance societies want to reduce the harm done by alcohol consumption. For that purpose alcohol consumption has to be reduced.
Re the solution of the problem: The WHO Assembly agreed in May to a resolution for a global alcohol strategy.
Youth Touched By Alcohol Harm To Change Our Drinking Culture, Australia – 16. Juli 2010
The Australian Drug Foundation’s Youth Strategy Officer, Clancy Wright, has been chosen as a Churchill fellow to investigate ways to change Australia’s drinking culture.
“After the trauma of watching the vicious assault of my friend, I am determined to find some real solutions to changing the way we as a nation drink alcohol,” said Mr Wright.
24year old, Mr Wright will be receiving the prestigious Churchill Fellowship at a ceremony to be held on 30 July. The Fellowship was established after the death of Sir Winston Churchill in accordance with his final wishes. (Source: Medical News Today, 7/15/10) Comment: If they read the WHO resolution on a global alcohol strategy they can save a lot of money….
USA: MillerCoors Launches Program for War Vets – 16. Juli 2010
MillerCoors recently announced a new marketing campaign it calls a “bottle cap and can tab collection program,” for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans to earn “rewards” such as tickets to concert and professional sporting events. But is this really a good way to help vets? Studies show alcohol over-consumption is on the rise among veterans of combat in Afghanistan and Iraq. Doesn’t MillerCoors have more common sense than to make veterans drink Miller High Life in order to “win” “rewards?” – High Life for Vets? – Study: Alcohol Use Among Veterans (Source: Marin Institute, 7/12/10)
Calif.: Tell the Big 5 to Keep the Alcohol Excise Tax Alive – 16. Juli 2010
Last month the California Budget Conference Committee received nearly 4,000 messages from concerned constituents that A cuts-only California budget will not work!
Now it’s time to send the same message to the leaders of the legislature and the Governor. Please tell the Big 5 to keep the alcohol tax alive and leave it in the budget because a cuts-only budget will not work! Tell them that you agree with the recent Sacramento Bee Editorial that it makes smart public policy to include a common-sense alcohol tax increase in the overall budget solution. (Source: Marin Institute, 7/15/10)
Schumer Calls for FTC to Investigate Alcoholic Energy Drink Marketing – 14. Juli 2010
Certain brands of alcoholic energy drinks are marketed with the intent of appealing to underage drinkers, charged Sen. Charles Schumer (D-N.Y.) in calling for an investigation by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC). …(Source: Join Together, 7/13/10)
The Summer Before College Sees Increase In Teen Drinking – 10. Juli 2010
Summertime and the living is easy. But not too easy for parents whose children will head to college in the fall. University of Rhode Island Psychology Professor Mark Wood, a nationally recognized alcohol researcher, wants parents to be aware that this is a time when teens tend to increase their alcohol consumption. (Source: Medical News Today, 7/8/10)
Russia: Zero-Tolerance Bill on Alcohol and Driving Approved – 8. Juli 2010
Two years after the State Duma allowed drivers to have a bottle of beer before getting behind the wheel, deputies passed in a third and final reading on Friday a zero-tolerance bill on drinking and driving. The zero-tolerance bill must now be approved by the Federation Council before it can be sent to Medvedev to be signed into law. (Source: Harvard World Health News, 7/8/10) themoscowtimes.com, 7/5/10
USA: New Dietary Recommendations planned – 8. Juli 2010
Alert by Marin Institute: Don’t Let Big Alcohol Take Advantage of New Dietary Recommendations. New Guidelines on Alcohol consumption Threaten Public Health & Safety
Join Marin Institute in submitting your comments to the federal government on the Alcohol Section of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans DEADLINE FOR COMMENTS — THURSDAY, JULY 15, 2010
– We are especially concerned that despite the Report’s caveats, the industry will use the new recommendations to promote alcohol consumption and increased consumption.
– We ask …
To read the entire alcohol section of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Report:
To read Marin Institute’s complete comments:
Illinois: Underage Drinkers Can Lose Driving Privileges – 6. Juli 2010
Illinois residents under age 21 who are caught drinking alcohol can lose their driver’s licenses even if they weren’t drinking and driving, the Illinois Supreme Court ruled.
The Belleville News-Democrat reported June 25 that the high court dismissed the arguments of a pair of 20-year-olds, who contended that the law allowing the courts to suspend or revoke their driver’s licenses because of an underage-drinking offense violated their right to due process and equal protection under the law. The Supreme Court overturned a lower court’s ruling that the law was unconstitutional, ruling in essence that the law was not fundamentally a punishment but rather intended to “provide for safe highways.” (Source: Join Together, 7/1/10)
Call For End To Supermarket ‘Reward’ Points For Alcohol, Scotland – 2. Juli 2010
Doctors have said that alcohol purchases should not be eligible for “customer loyalty points” as part of a series of measures to tackle the promotion of cheap alcohol in supermarkets. Doctors, who were attending the BMA’s annual conference in Brighton yesterday (Tuesday 29 June 2010) also gave their backing to increasing the price of alcohol as a means of reducing alcohol consumption. (Source: Medical News Today, 7/1/10)
EU Alcohol Policy Conference 21-22 June 2010 in Brussels – 2. Juli 2010
The Director-General for Health and Consumers Paola Testori Coggi addressed the participants of the 4th European Alcohol Policy Conference, organized by Eurocare (European Alcohol Policy Alliance) on 21-22 June 2010 in Brussels. This conference series is a key event in the field of alcohol policy taking place every two years…. (Source: EU-Health & Consumer Voice – July – 2010 Edition)
USA: $12 Million Annually on Ignition-Interlock Devices – 2. Juli 2010
The Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 2010 includes $12 million in funding for development of alcohol-detection devices that could be installed in all cars. The government and the U.S. auto industry have been working on an improved version of the ignition-interlock device, which prevents the vehicle from starting if the driver has more than the legal limit of alcohol in his or her system. The bill would increase program funding from the current $2 million annually, calling for $60 million over five years — an increase backed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving, among others. (Source: Join Together, 6/29/10)
California Legislators Favor Alcohol Energy Drinks – 2. Juli 2010
… and oppose AB1598.mov. (Source: Marin Institute, 6/30/10) See video
Rheumatoid Arthritis Possibly Reduced By Alcohol – 29. Juli 2010
Drinking alcohol may reduce the severity of rheumatoid arthritis according to new research just published. It is the first time that this effect has been shown in humans. The study also finds that alcohol consumption reduces the risk of developing the disease, confirming the results of previous studies. (Source: Medical News Today, 7/28/10) our Online Comment: This is again one of the typical studies which suggests alcohol positive results. At the end doubts are reflected but no information about the big risks of alcohol in general. The normal alcohol consumer feels confirmed in his behaviour. Most of the newspapers publish big titles and no or few doubts and that is what the alcohol industry needs.
Increase In Drinking Trends For Whites, Blacks And Hispanics – 27. Juli 2010
Given that Whites are the majority population in the United States, drinking trends for this group tend to determine overall trends in drinking for the country and simultaneously minimize trends and possible risks among Black and Hispanic populations. A study of trends in drinking patterns and amounts drank among Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics from 1992 to 2002 has found a rise in the proportion of drinkers across all three ethnic groups and both genders. (Source: Medical News Today, 7/21/10)
Price levels for food, beverages and tobacco across Europe – 19. Juli 2010
Price levels for food, beverages and tobacco across the European market differ significantly. Comparative price levels in 37 European countries for 2009. In 2009, the prices for food and non-alcoholic beverages in Poland were 64% of the EU average, while
in Denmark they were 139%. Alcohol was priced in Finland at 170% of the EU average, but at 70%
in Romania. Source: Eurocare Newsletter June-July 2010) eurostat 30/2010 Comment: Switzerland and Norway are on top.
Risk For Stroke Temporarily Increases For An Hour After Drinking Alcohol – 18. Juli 2010
Call it the not-so-happy hour. The risk of stroke appears to double in the hour after consuming just one drink – be it wine, beer or hard liquor – according to a small multi-center study reported in Stroke: Journal of the American Heart Association. “The impact of alcohol on your risk of ischemic stroke appears to depend on how much and how often you drink,” said Murray A. Mittleman, M.D., Dr.P.H., …(Source: Medial News Today, 7/17/10)
Are Teen Binge Drinkers Risking Future Osteoporosis? – 16. Juli 2010
Binge-drinking teenagers may be putting themselves at risk for future osteoporosis and bone fractures, according to researchers at Loyola University Health System. A new Loyola study has found long-lasting disruptions in hundreds of genes involved in bone formation in rats. The study is published in the July-August issue of the journal Alcohol and Alcoholism. (Source: Medical News Today, 7/14/10)
The Cost of Alcohol to San Francisco – 16. Juli 2010
To support a proposed new local fee on alcohol sales, the San Francisco Controller’s office commissioned a “nexus study” to analyze the actual costs incurred by the city from alcohol use. Titled, The Cost of Alcohol to San Francisco – Analyses Supporting an Alcohol Mitigation Fee, the recently-released study found $17.7 million in direct unreimbursed expenses for alcohol-related harm. These expenses were incurred by community behavioral health services, fire department emergency medical transport, San Francisco General Hospital, and the Sheriff’s department. Because the study only considered health costs, excluding crime and other costs, $17.7 million is a very conservative amount. (Source: Marin Institute, 7/12/10)
Alcohol Use Rate Among American Indian Or Alaska Native Adults – 10. Juli 2010
… Is Well Below The National Average
A new national study reveals that the rate of past month alcohol use (i.e., at least one drink in the past 30 days) among American Indian or Alaska Native adults is significantly lower than the national average for adults (43.9 percent versus 55.2 percent). The study, sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) also shows that American Indian or Native Alaska adults have a rate of past month binge alcohol drinking (i.e., five or more drinks on the same occasion – on at least one day in the past 30 days) well above the national average (30.6 percent versus 24.5 percent). … (Source: Medical News Today, 7/9/10)
Study Evaluates Role Of Drugs On Sexual Performance – 8. Juli 2010
Sharing a bottle of red wine may seem like the best recipe for a romantic interlude. However, the evening may not turn out as planned according to a Concordia University study, which evaluated the effect of a wide range of drugs, including alcohol, on sexual behaviour. The findings, published in the journal Hormones and Behavior, definitively show that despite our preconceived notions, use of many recreational drugs can cause a loss in that lovin’ feeling. (Source: Medical News Today, 7/7/10)
Britain Grapples with Drinking-Related Hypertension – 6. Juli 2010
Treatment for high blood pressure as a result of binge drinking has increased 74 percent in five years in the U.K., the Daily Mail reported June 28. Hospitals treated approximately 330,000 patients for drinking-related hypertension in 2008-2009, up from 191,000 in 2004-2005, according the U.K. Department of Health. One in five Britons suffer from high blood pressure, and the country’s notorious pub culture a likely factor: Men who drink more than eight servings of alcohol per day quadruple their risk of hypertension, while women who drink more than six per day double their risk. (Source: Join Together, 7/1/10)
48% of Australians Taking Action To Cut Back On The Booze – 4. Juli 2010
A new report released last week on the state of Australia’s health shows half of all Australians (48.2 per cent) are taking action to reduce their drinking. “We know that drinking alcohol contributes to the leading causes of disease in Australians -heart disease, strokes and cancer, so it’s very positive that so many people are trying to cut down,” said Robin Room, Director – AER Centre for Alcohol Policy Research at Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre…. “Consumers deserve to know that there is very little protective effect for their physical health from drinking,” said Mr Room. (Source: Medical News Today, 7/2/10)
Underage Drinking-Related Hospital Department Visits Nearly Double Over The Fourth Of July Weekend – 4. Juli 2010
Hospital emergency department visits involving underage drinking nearly double during the Fourth of July Holiday weekend according to a new study by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The study reveals that daily underage drinking-related visits to hospital emergency departments are 87 percent higher during the Fourth of July weekend than they are on an average day in July. The report estimates that on an average day in July, there are 502 hospital emergency department visits involving underage alcohol use. For the three day Fourth of July weekend however, the number of daily hospital emergency department visits jumps to 938. (Source: Medical News Today, 7/2/10)
The teen brain is a marvel of smarts. It’s just not all filled in (yet) – 2. Juli 2010
Of all the organs in our bodies, the brain takes the longest to develop. Frontal lobes — the seat of judgment — are the last pieces to be fully connected to the parts of the brain that sense danger or solve calculus problems. A growing body of neuroscientific evidence places full brain maturity at about age 25, well past the point when young people begin to drive, drink, vote, or go off to war. (Source: Harvard World Health News, 7/2/10) boston.com, 6/28/10
USA: Teen Girls Are Drinking More Than Boys – 2. Juli 2010
Report shows Girls drink to relieve stress and worries, while boys look for fun.
New data released today from the Partnership for a Drug Free America suggest that not only are girls now drinking more than boys, they turn to drugs and alcohol for more serious reasons as well. The report, which analyzed results from the 2009 Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS), a survey of teen attitudes and behaviors, shows that the number of middle- and high-school girls who say they drink has increased by 11 percent in the past year, from 53 percent to 59 percent. Boys have stayed at about the same level, hovering around 52 percent. (Source: Harvard World Health News, 7/2/10) newsweek.com, 6/29/10
Alcohol During Pregnancy May Damage Semen In Sons – 2. Juli 2010
Mothers who drink alcohol while they are pregnant may be damaging the fertility of their future sons, according to new research to be presented at the 26th annual meeting of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology in Rome yesterday (Tuesday 29 June). (Source: Medical News Today, 6/30/10)
USA: A Lot of Bang for Booze Bucks – 2. Juli 2010
Marin Institute has just published a new report that chronicles how Big Alcohol spent $3 million in campaign donations and lobbying expenditures in 2009. The list of legislators on the take includes key committee members and the governor’s “Budget Reform Now” PAC. The report uncovers what Big Alcohol got for its money, including the defeat of increased alcohol taxes and a proposed Charge for Harm mitigation fee that if passed, would have provided the cash-strapped state with $1.4 billion in new revenue. (Source: Marin Institute, 6/30/10) Press Release – – – Read Report – – – Charge For Harm
Hermann T. Meyer, Projekte und Dienstleistungen, Lindenstr. 32, CH-8307 Effretikon, Switzerland,
Tel. +41 (0)52 343 58 75, Fax: +41 (0)52 343 59 29 e-mail Copyright © 2001-2010: Hermann T. Meyer. All rights reserved. Texts from third persons do not necessarily reflect our own opinion.
If you use our texts for distribution, please state the source.
Last entry: July 30, 2010